<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-type" content="text/html;charset=UTF-8" /> <title>Arabic subject &amp; object pronouns ('D6E'&1 'D91(J))</title> <link type="text/css" rel="stylesheet" href="style.css" /> <meta name="description" content="Tables of the subject and object pronouns in standard and Egyptian Arabic." /> <script type="text/javascript"> var _gaq = _gaq || []; _gaq.push(['_setAccount', 'UA-29877981-1']); _gaq.push(['_trackPageview']); (function() { var ga = document.createElement('script'); ga.type = 'text/javascript'; ga.async = true; ga.src = ('https:' == document.location.protocol ? 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You can tell from a verb conjugation who the subject is, so it's not really necessary to use the subject pronoun in such cases except for emphasis. However, in equational (verbless) sentences like the two above, you do need the subject pronoun.</p> <h3>Subject pronouns in standard and Egyptian Arabic</h3> <br /><table class="conj"> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <tr class="odd bottombordersolid"><td>&nbsp;</td><td><strong>English</strong></td><td><strong>Standard Arabic</strong></td><td><strong>Egyptian Arabic</strong></td></tr> <tr class="bottombordersolid"><td rowspan="5" class="odd"><strong>Singular</strong></td><td>I</td><td dir="rtl" colspan="2"><center><span class="arabic">#F'</span> (ana)</center></td></tr> <tr><td>you (masc.)</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">'F*N</span> (anta)</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">'F*</span> (inta)</td></tr> <tr class="bottombordersolid"><td>you (fem.)</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">'F*P</span> (anti)</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">'F*I</span> (inti)</td></tr> <tr><td>he</td><td dir="rtl" colspan="2"><center><span class="arabic">GH</span> (howwa)</td></tr> <tr class="bottomborderthick"><td>she</td><td dir="rtl" colspan="2"><center><span class="arabic">GJ</span> (heyya)</td></tr> <tr><td rowspan="3" class="odd"><strong>Dual</strong></td><td>we</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">F-F</span> (naHnu)</td><td dir="rtl">&nbsp;</td></tr> <tr><td>you</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">#F*E'</span> (antuma)</td><td dir="rtl">&nbsp;</td></tr> <tr class="bottomborderthick"><td>they</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">GE'</span> (humaa)</td><td dir="rtl">&nbsp;</td></tr> <tr class="bottombordersolid"><td rowspan="5" class="odd"><strong>Plural</strong></td><td>we</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">F-F</span> (naHnu)</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">'-F'</span> (eHna)</td></tr> <tr><td>you (masc.)</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">#F*E</span> (antum)</td><td dir="rtl" rowspan="2"><span class="arabic">'F*H</span> (intu)</td></tr> <tr class="bottombordersolid"><td>you (fem.)</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">#F*F</span> (antunna)</td></tr> <tr><td>they (masc.)</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">GE</span> (homa)</td><td dir="rtl" rowspan="2"><span class="arabic">GE</span> (homa)</td></tr> <tr><td>they (fem.)</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">GF</span> (hunna)</td></tr> </table> <br /><p><span class="emphasis">Note:</span> In English, there is only one second-person pronoun, "you," which is used whether you're talking to one person, two people, or more. But in Arabic, as you see above, there are masculine and feminine versions of "you," as well as singular, dual (standard Arabic only), and plural versions: <span class="arabic">'F*N</span>\<span class="arabic">'F*P</span> if you're addressing one person, <span class="arabic">#F*E'</span> if you're addressing two (in standard Arabic), and <span class="arabic">#F*E</span>\<span class="arabic">#F*F</span> if you're addressing three or more people. Note that the dual "you" (<span class="arabic">#F*E'</span>) is the same regardless of gender. In standard Arabic, there is also a dual version of "they" (<span class="arabic">GE'</span> - which is gender-indiscriminate as well) and masculine and feminine versions of the plural "they" (<span class="arabic">GE</span> and <span class="arabic">GF</span>).</p> <p>Note that Egyptian Arabic has fewer pronouns than standard Arabic, since it has no dual pronouns; it just has plural pronouns that are used to talk about two or more people, of any gender. And the colloquial <span class="arabic">'F*H</span> and <span class="arabic">GE</span> are gender-neutral.</p> <br /><hr /><br /> <h2><a name="obj"></a>Object pronouns</h2><br /> <p>Object pronouns (me, you, us, him, her, them) are used when you do something directly <span class="italic">to</span> someone or something else. In Arabic, these pronouns are suffixes that are attached to the verb:</p> <div class="example"><span class="arabic">61(*G</span> (Darabat<span class="bold">u</span>)<br /> She hit <span class="bold">him</span>.<br /><br /> <span class="arabic">J4C1HFJ</span> (yaakuruu<span class="bold">ni</span>)<br /> They thank <span class="bold">me</span>.</div> <br /><h3>Object pronouns in standard and Egyptian Arabic</h3> <br /><table class="conj"> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <tr class="odd bottombordersolid"><td>&nbsp;</td><td><strong>English</strong></td><td><strong>Standard Arabic</strong></td><td><strong>Egyptian Arabic</strong></td></tr> <tr class="bottombordersolid"><td rowspan="5" class="odd"><strong>Singular</strong></td><td>me</td><td dir="rtl" colspan="2"><center><span class="arabic">@FJ</span> <span dir="ltr">(-ni)</span></center></td></tr> <tr><td>you (masc.)</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">@CN</span> <span dir="ltr">(-ka)</span></td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">@C</span> <span dir="ltr">(-ak)</span></td></tr> <tr class="bottombordersolid"><td>you (fem.)</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">@CP</span> <span dir="ltr">(-ki)</span></td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">@C</span> <span dir="ltr">(-ik)</span></td></tr> <tr><td>him</td><td dir="rtl" colspan="2"><center><span class="arabic">@G</span> <span dir="ltr">(-u)</span></center></td></tr> <tr class="bottomborderthick"><td>her</td><td dir="rtl" colspan="2"><center><span class="arabic">@G'</span> <span dir="ltr">(-ha)</span></center></td></tr> <tr><td rowspan="3" class="odd"><strong>Dual</strong></td><td>us</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">@F'</span> <span dir="ltr">(-na)</span></td><td dir="rtl">&nbsp;</td></tr> <tr><td>you</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">@CE'</span> <span dir="ltr">(-kuma)</span></td><td dir="rtl">&nbsp;</td></tr> <tr class="bottomborderthick"><td>them</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">@GE'</span> <span dir="ltr">(-huma)</span></td><td dir="rtl">&nbsp;</td></tr> <tr class="bottombordersolid"><td rowspan="5" class="odd"><strong>Plural</strong></td><td>us</td><td dir="rtl" colspan="2"><center><span class="arabic">@F'</span> <span dir="ltr">(-na)</span></center></td></tr> <tr><td>you (masc.)</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">@CE</span> <span dir="ltr">(-kum)</span></td><td dir="rtl" rowspan="2"><span class="arabic">@CH\@CE</span> <span dir="ltr">(-ku/-kum)</span></td></tr> <tr class="bottombordersolid"><td>you (fem.)</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">@CF</span> <span dir="ltr">(-kunna)</span></td></tr> <tr><td>them (masc.)</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">@GE</span> <span dir="ltr">(-hum)</span></td><td dir="rtl" rowspan="2"><span class="arabic">@GE</span> <span dir="ltr">(-hom)</span></td></tr> <tr><td>them (fem.)</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">@GF</span> <span dir="ltr">(-hunna)</span></td></tr> </table> <br /><p><span class="emphasis">Note:</span> In colloquial Arabic, <span class="arabic">@CH</span> and <span class="arabic">@CE</span> are both used, but the former is more colloquial than the latter.</p> Here are some examples of object pronoun usage, using the verb <span class="arabic">3#D</span> (sa'al) - "to ask." <br /><br /><table class="conj"> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <tr class="odd bottombordersolid"><td>&nbsp;</td><td><strong>English</strong></td><td><strong>Standard Arabic</strong></td><td><strong>Egyptian Arabic</strong></td></tr> <tr class="bottombordersolid"><td rowspan="5" class="odd"><strong>Singular</strong></td><td>He asked me</td><td dir="rtl" colspan="2"><center><span class="arabic">3#DFJ</span> <span dir="ltr">(sa'alni)</span></center></td></tr> <tr><td>He asked you (masc.)</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">3#DCN</span> <span dir="ltr">(sa'alaka)</span></td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">3#DC</span> <span dir="ltr">(sa'alak)</span></td></tr> <tr class="bottombordersolid"><td>He asked you (fem.)</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">3#DCP</span> <span dir="ltr">(sa'alaki)</span></td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">3#DC</span> <span dir="ltr">(sa'alik)</span></td></tr> <tr><td>He asked him</td><td dir="rtl" colspan="2"><center><span class="arabic">3#DG</span> <span dir="ltr">(sa'alahu [more standard] or sa'alu [more colloquial])</span></center></td></tr> <tr class="bottomborderthick"><td>He asked her</td><td dir="rtl" colspan="2"><center><span class="arabic">3#DG'</span> <span dir="ltr">(sa'alaha [more standard] or sa'alha [more colloquial])</span></center></td></tr> <tr><td rowspan="3" class="odd"><strong>Dual</strong></td><td>He asked us</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">3#DF'</span> <span dir="ltr">(sa'alna)</span></td><td dir="rtl">&nbsp;</td></tr> <tr><td>He asked you</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">3#DCE'</span> <span dir="ltr">(sa'alkuma)</span></td><td dir="rtl">&nbsp;</td></tr> <tr class="bottomborderthick"><td>He asked them</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">3#DGE'</span> <span dir="ltr">(sa'alhuma)</span></td><td dir="rtl">&nbsp;</td></tr> <tr class="bottombordersolid"><td rowspan="5" class="odd"><strong>Plural</strong></td><td>He asked us</td><td dir="rtl" colspan="2"><center><span class="arabic">3#DF'</span> <span dir="ltr">(sa'alna)</span></center></td></tr> <tr><td>He asked you (masc.)</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">3#DCE</span> <span dir="ltr">(sa'alkum)</span></td><td dir="rtl" rowspan="2"><span class="arabic">3#DCH\@CE</span> <span dir="ltr">(sa'alku/sa'alkum)</span></td></tr> <tr class="bottombordersolid"><td>He asked you (fem.)</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">3#DCF</span> <span dir="ltr">(sa'alkunna)</span></td></tr> <tr><td>He asked them (masc.)</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">3#DGE</span> <span dir="ltr">(sa'alhum)</span></td><td dir="rtl" rowspan="2"><span class="arabic">3#DGE</span> <span dir="ltr">(sa'alhom)</span></td></tr> <tr><td>He asked them (fem.)</td><td dir="rtl"><span class="arabic">3#DGF</span> <span dir="ltr">(sa'alhunna)</span></td></tr> </table> <br /> <br /><span class="back">&larr; <a href="grammar.html">Main grammar page</a></span> <span class="forward"><a href="g_pronouns_poss.html">Possessive pronouns</a> &rarr;</span> <br /> </div> <div id="footer"> <p><a href="mailto:webmaster%20(at)%20desert-sky%20(dot)%20net">Contact</a></p> </div> </div> </body> </html>