<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-type" content="text/html;charset=UTF-8" /> <title>The passive participle ('3E 'DEA9HD) in Egyptian Arabic</title> <link type="text/css" rel="stylesheet" href="style.css" /> <meta name="description" content="How to use the passive participle in Egyptian Arabic, including examples. How to derive the passive participle from verbs." /> <script type="text/javascript"> var _gaq = _gaq || []; _gaq.push(['_setAccount', 'UA-29877981-1']); _gaq.push(['_trackPageview']); (function() { var ga = document.createElement('script'); ga.type = 'text/javascript'; ga.async = true; ga.src = ('https:' == document.location.protocol ? 'https://ssl' : 'http://www') + '.google-analytics.com/ga.js'; var s = document.getElementsByTagName('script')[0]; s.parentNode.insertBefore(ga, s); })(); </script> </head> <body> <div id="content"> <div id="head"> <span class="title">Arabic learning resources</span> <ul id="menu"> <li><a href="index.html">home</a></li> <li><a href="vocab.html">vocabulary</a></li> <li><a href="grammar.html">grammar</a></li> <li><a href="faq.html">faq</a></li> <li><a href="about.html">about</a></li> <li><a href="links.html">links</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="body"> <h1>The passive participle in Egyptian Arabic</h1><br /> <ul> <li><a href="#intro">Introduction</a></li> <li><a href="#deriv">Derivation of the passive participle</a></li> </ul><br /> <hr /> <br /><h2><a name="intro"></a>Introduction</h2><br /> <p>Passive participles, like active participles, act as adjectives, and so they must agree with the noun they're describing. A passive participle may express a current state of being; a couple of examples would be "known" and "understood." Or it may express a state of <i>having been</i> &mdash; the result of an action that has already been performed. Examples would be "written" (i.e. the item is in a state of already having been written) and "cooked" (i.e. the item has already been cooked). Use of the passive participle obscures the identity of the person who performed the action.</p> <div class="example"><table class="nest"> <tr><td><span class="arabic">EE+D E91HA</span> (mumassil <span class="bold">ma3ruuf</span>)</td><td><span class="arabic">(J6 EBDJ</span> (beiD <span class="bold">ma'li</span>)</td></tr> <tr><td>a <span class="bold">well-known</span> actor</td><td><span class="bold">fried</span> eggs</td></tr></table></div><br /> <hr /><br /> <h2><a name="deriv"></a>Derivation of the passive participle</h2><br /> <p>Passive participles are derived in different ways from their root verbs. However, if you know the type of verb you're working with, deriving the passive participle from that verb is quite regular.</p> <table class="zebra"> <tr class="bottomborder"><td><span class="bold">Type of verb</span></td><td><span class="bold">Passive participle</span></td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td>Form 1 sound verbs (of the type <span class="arabic">A9D</span> fi3il)</td><td><span class="arabic">EA9HD</span> (maf3uul)</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td><span class="indented"><span class="arabic">C*(</span> (katab) to write</span></td><td><span class="indented"><span class="arabic">EC*H(</span> (maktuub) written</span></td></tr> <tr class="bottomborder odd"><td><span class="indented"><span class="arabic">AGE</span> (fihim) to understand</span></td><td><span class="indented"><span class="arabic">EAGHE</span> (mafhuum) understood</span></td></tr> <tr><td>Form 1 geminate/doubled verbs (of the type <span class="arabic">A9Q</span> fa33)</td><td><span class="arabic">EA9H9</span> (maf3uu3)</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="indented"><span class="arabic">-(Q</span> (Habb) to love</span></td><td><span class="indented"><span class="arabic">E-(H(</span> (maHbuub) beloved</span></td></tr> <tr class="bottomborder"><td><span class="indented"><span class="arabic">C(Q</span> (kabb) to spill/pour</span></td><td><span class="indented"><span class="arabic">EC(H(</span> (makbuub) spilled/poured</span></td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td>Form 1 defective verbs (of the type <span class="arabic">A9J</span> fi3i or fa3a)</td><td><span class="arabic">EA9J</span> (maf3i)</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td><span class="indented"><span class="arabic">4HI</span> (aawa) to grill</span></td><td><span class="indented"><span class="arabic">E4HJ</span> (maawi) grilled</span></td></tr> <tr class="bottomborder odd"><td><span class="indented"><span class="arabic">F3I</span> (nisi) to forget</span></td><td><span class="indented"><span class="arabic">EF3J</span> (mansi) forgotten</span></td></tr> <tr><td>Most other triliteral verb forms</td><td>Substitute "mi" for the "yi" of the imperfect howwa verb conjugation*</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="indented"><span class="arabic">C3Q1</span> (kassar) to smash</span></td><td><span class="indented"><span class="arabic">EC3Q1</span> (mikassar) smashed</span></td></tr> <tr><td><span class="indented"><span class="arabic">'*.1Q,</span> (itxarrag) to graduate</span></td><td><span class="indented"><span class="arabic">E*.1Q,</span> (mitxarrag) (a) graduate</span></td></tr> <tr><td><span class="indented"><span class="arabic">'.*'1</span> (ixtaar) to choose</span></td><td><span class="indented"><span class="arabic">E.*'1</span> (muxtaar) chosen</span></td></tr> <tr class="bottomborder"><td><span class="indented"><span class="arabic">'3*./E</span> (istaxdim) to use</span></td><td><span class="indented"><span class="arabic">E3*./E</span> (mistaxdim) used</span></td></tr> </table><br /> <p>* Educated Egyptians often pronounce this "mi" as "mu" due to influence from standard Arabic &mdash; see the pronunciation "muxtaar" (as opposed to "mixtaar") as an example.</p> <p><span class="emphasis">Note:</span> For verbs that are not of Form 1, the active participle and passive participle are usually exactly the same! You would use context to tell which it is.</p> <div class="example"><span class="arabic">E-*DQ</span> (miHtall)<br /> This could be the active participle, "occupying," or the passive participle, "occupied."</div><br /> <p>You might also have noticed that hollow verbs were not included in the above table of passive participle derivations. This is because passive participles are not used for these verbs. Rather, you would derive a passive participle from the verb's corresponding passive form (which would generally begin with <span class="arabic">'*@</span> it-).</p> <div class="example"><span class="arabic">('9</span> (baa3) to sell<br /> This has no passive participle. So you would instead use the verb:<br /> <span class="arabic">'*('9</span> (itbaa3) to be sold<br /> From this you would derive the appropriate passive participle, <span class="arabic">E*('9</span> (mitbaa3), "sold."</div><br /> <p>But also note that aside from passive verb forms of hollow verbs, you do not usually use passive participles derived from <span class="arabic">'*A9D</span> itfa3al verb forms &mdash; except, in some cases, if you want to distinguish between a passive and active participle that would otherwise be the same.</p> <div class="example"> <span class="arabic">/DQ9</span> (dalla3) to spoil<br /> The active and passive participle of this verb is the same: <span class="arabic">E/DQ9</span> (midalla3)<br /> So people will use <span class="arabic">E/DQ9</span> only in its active participle sense. For the passive participle, they use:<br /> <span class="arabic">E*/DQ9</span> (mitdalla3) spoiled, as in a spoiled child<br /><br /> <span class="arabic">1(QI</span> (rabba) to raise or grow (as in a parent raising a child, or someone growing a plant)<br /> The active and passive participle of this verb is the same: <span class="arabic">E1(QJ</span> (mirabbi)<br /> So people will use <span class="arabic">E1(QJ</span> only in its active participle sense. For the passive participle, they use:<br /> <span class="arabic">E*1(QJ</span> (mitrabbi) well-raised</div> <br /> <p>But usually for passive verbs, you would derive a passive participle from the corresponding Form 1 verb.</p> <div class="example"> <span class="arabic">'*C*(</span> (itkatab) to be written<br /> This has no passive participle. So you would instead use the corresponding Form 1 verb:<br /> <span class="arabic">C*(</span> (katab) to write<br /> From this you would derive the appropriate passive participle, <span class="arabic">EC*H(</span> (maktuub), "written."<br /><br /> <span class="arabic">'*C3A</span> (itkasaf) to be embarrassed<br /> This has no passive participle. So you would instead use the corresponding Form 1 verb:<br /> <span class="arabic">C3A</span> (kasaf) to embarrass<br /> From this you would derive the appropriate passive participle, <span class="arabic">EC3HA</span> (maksuuf), "embarrassed." </div> <br /> <br /><span class="back">&larr; <a href="grammar.html">Main grammar page</a></span> <span class="forward"><a href="g_cond.html">Conditional statements</a> &rarr;</span> <br /> </div> <div id="footer"> <p><a href="mailto:webmaster%20(at)%20desert-sky%20(dot)%20net">Contact</a></p> </div> </div> </body> </html>