<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-type" content="text/html;charset=UTF-8" /> <title>The Arabic "sisters" ('DFH'3.)</title> <link type="text/css" rel="stylesheet" href="style.css" /> <meta name="description" content="Kaana and its sisters, inna and its sisters, and Zanna and its sisters. Information on their role in the case system and examples of usage." /> <script type="text/javascript"> var _gaq = _gaq || []; _gaq.push(['_setAccount', 'UA-29877981-1']); _gaq.push(['_trackPageview']); (function() { var ga = document.createElement('script'); ga.type = 'text/javascript'; ga.async = true; ga.src = ('https:' == document.location.protocol ? 'https://ssl' : 'http://www') + '.google-analytics.com/ga.js'; var s = document.getElementsByTagName('script')[0]; s.parentNode.insertBefore(ga, s); })(); </script> </head> <body> <div id="content"> <div id="head"> <span class="title">Arabic learning resources</span> <ul id="menu"> <li><a href="index.html">home</a></li> <li><a href="vocab.html">vocabulary</a></li> <li><a href="grammar.html">grammar</a></li> <li><a href="faq.html">faq</a></li> <li><a href="about.html">about</a></li> <li><a href="links.html">links</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="body"> <h1>Special converters to accusative</h1><br /> <ul> <li><a href="#intro">Introduction</a></li> <li><a href="#kan"><span class="arabic">C'F H#.H'*G'</span></a> (kna wa-axawtuha)</li> <li><a href="#inn"><span class="arabic">%FQ H#.H'*G'</span></a> (inna wa-axawtuha)</li> <li><a href="#zann"><span class="arabic">8FQ H#.H'*G'</span></a> (Zanna wa-axawtuha)</li> </ul> <br /><hr /> <br /><h2><a name="intro"></a>Introduction</h2> <br /><p>There are three categories of words that shift what follows into the accusative case <span dir="ltr">(<span class="arabic">'DEF5H(</span>).</span></p> <p>But first, let's pick a simple nominal sentence (<span class="arabic">,ED) '3EJ)</span>) to work with as an example:</p> <div class="example"><span class="arabic">'DHD/O 7HJDL</span> (al-waladu Tawiilun)<br /> The boy is tall.</div><br /> <p>Each part of this sentence &mdash; the subject (<span class="arabic">'DE(*/#</span>), al-walad, and the predicate (<span class="arabic">'D.(1</span>), Tawiil &mdash; is in the "default" nominative case (<span class="arabic">'DE1AH9</span>). Now, if we put a word like <span class="arabic">C'F</span> or <span class="arabic">%FQ</span> at the beginning of this sentence, it will shift a part of the sentence into the accusative case <span dir="ltr">(<span class="arabic">'DEF5H(</span>).</span></p> <br /><hr /> <br /><h2><a name="kan"></a><span class="arabic">C'F H#.H'*G'</span> (kna wa-axawtuha)</h2> <br /><table class="zebra"> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <tr><td class="odd">to be</td><td><span class="arabic">C'F</span> (kna)</td></tr> <tr><td class="odd">to not be; used for negation</td><td><span class="arabic">DJ3</span> (laysa)</td></tr> <tr><td class="odd">to become</td><td><span class="arabic">#5(-</span> (aSbaHa)</td><td><span class="arabic">5'1</span> (Sra)</td><td><span class="arabic">('*</span> (bta)</td><td><span class="arabic">#E3I</span> (amsa)</td></tr> <tr><td class="odd">to remain</td><td><span class="arabic">8D</span> (Zalla)</td><td><span class="arabic">(BI</span> (baqiya)</td></tr> <tr><td class="odd">to continue to be/still be</td><td><span class="arabic">E' 2'D</span> (ma zla)</td><td><span class="arabic">/'E | E' /'E</span> (dma/ma dma)</td></tr> </table><br /> <p>If you put any of these words in a sentence, it will change the predicate (<span class="arabic">'D.(1</span>) from the nominative case (<span class="arabic">'DE1AH9</span>) to the accusative case <span dir="ltr">(<span class="arabic">'DEF5H(</span>).</span></p> <div class="example"><table class="nest"> <tr><td><span class="arabic">'DHD/O 7HJDL</span> (al-waladu <span class="bold">Tawiilun</span>)</td><td><span class="arabic">C'F 'DHD/O 7HJD'</span> (<span class="underline">kaana</span> l-waladu <span class="bold">Tawiilan</span>)</td></tr> <tr><td>The boy is <span class="bold">tall</span>.</td><td>The boy <span class="underline">was</span> <span class="bold">tall</span>.</td></tr> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">G0' 'DC*'(O ,J/L</span> (haa<u>d</u>a l-kitaabu <span class="bold">jayyidun</span>)</td><td><span class="arabic">G0' 'DC*'(O DJ3N ,J/'</span> (haa<u>d</u>a l-kitaabu <span class="underline">laysa</span> <span class="bold">jayyidan</span>)</td></tr> <tr><td>This book is <span class="bold">good</span>.</td><td>This book is <span class="underline">not</span> <span class="bold">good</span>.</td></tr> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">'D7'D()O F',-)L</span> (aT-Taalibatu <span class="bold">naajiHatun</span>)</td><td><span class="arabic">#5(-* 'D7'D()O F',-)N</span> (<span class="underline">aSbaHat</span> aT-Taalibatu <span class="bold">naajiHatan</span>)</td></tr> <tr><td>The student is <span class="bold">successful</span>.</td><td>The student <span class="underline">became</span> <span class="bold">successful</span>.</td></tr> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">'D49(O E*A'&DO</span> (aa-aa3bu <span class="bold">mutafaa'ilun</span>)</td><td><span class="arabic">E' 2'DN 'D49(O E*A'&D'</span> (<span class="underline">ma zaala</span> a-aa3bu <span class="bold">mutafaa'ilan</span>)</td></tr> <tr><td>The people are <span class="bold">optimistic</span>.</td><td>The people <span class="underline">are still</span> <span class="bold">optimistic</span>.</td></tr></table></div><br /> <br /><hr /><br /> <h2><a name="inn"></a><span class="arabic">%FQ H#.H'*G'</span> (inna wa-axawtuha)</h2> <br /><table class="zebra"> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <tr><td class="odd">indeed &mdash; used for emphasis &mdash; or that*</td><td><span class="arabic">%FQ</span> (inna)</td></tr> <tr><td class="odd">that*</td><td><span class="arabic">#FQ</span> (anna)</td></tr> <tr><td class="odd">but</td><td><span class="arabic">DCFQ</span> (laakinna)</td></tr> <tr><td class="odd">because</td><td><span class="arabic">D#F</span> (li'anna)</td></tr> <tr><td class="odd">as if</td><td><span class="arabic">C#F</span> (ka'anna)</td></tr> <tr><td class="odd">perhaps</td><td><span class="arabic">D9DQ</span> (la3alla)</td></tr> </table><br /> <p>If you put any of these words in a sentence, it will change the subject (<span class="arabic">'DE(*/'!</span>) from the nominative case (<span class="arabic">'DE1AH9</span>) to the accusative case <span dir="ltr">(<span class="arabic">'DEF5H(</span>).</span></p> <div class="example"><table class="nest"> <tr><td><span class="arabic">'DHD/O 7HJDL</span> (<span class="bold">al-waladu</span> Tawiilun)</td><td><span class="arabic">%FQ 'DHD/N 7HJDL</span> (inna <span class="bold">l-walada</span> Tawiilun)</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="bold">The boy</span> is tall.</td><td>[Indeed] <span class="bold">the boy</span> is tall.</td></tr> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">'D(F*O E1J6)L</span> (<span class="bold">al-bintu</span> muriiDatun)</td><td><span class="arabic">B'D* 'D(F*N %FG' E1J6GL</span> (qaalat <span class="bold">al-binta</span> innaha muriiDatun)</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="bold">The girl</span> is sick.</td><td><span class="bold">The girl</span> said [that] she is sick.</td></tr> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">'DF,'-O B1J(L</span> (<span class="bold">an-najaaHu</span> qariibun)</td><td><span class="arabic">D9D 'DF,'-N B1J(L</span> (la3alla <span class="bold">an-najaaHa</span> qariibun)</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="bold">Success</span> is near.</td><td>Perhaps <span class="bold">success</span> is near.</td></tr></table></div> <br />* The difference between <span class="arabic">%FQ</span> and <span class="arabic">#FQ</span>: <br /><br />Uses of <span class="arabic">%FQ</span> (inna): <ol><li>Follows <span class="arabic">B'D</span> to mean "to say <span class="bold">that</span>"</li> <li>May come at the beginning of a sentence, for emphasis; like "indeed"</li></ol> <br />Uses of <span class="arabic">#FQ</span> (anna): <ol><li>Reports factual information after a verb of perception &mdash; <span class="arabic">'9*B/ #FQ</span> (to believe that); <span class="arabic">3E9 #FQ</span> (to hear that) &mdash; or a verb of communication &mdash; <span class="arabic">#9DF #FQ</span> (to announce that); <span class="arabic">0C1 #FQ</span> (to mention that).</li></ol> <br /><hr /><br /> <h2><a name="zann"></a><span class="arabic">8FQ H#.H'*G'</span> (Zanna wa-axawtuha)</h2> <br /><p>These verbs include verbs of perception and verbs of transformation:</p> <table class="zebra"> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <tr><td class="odd">to believe, suppose</td><td><span class="arabic">8FQ</span> (Zanna)</td></tr> <tr><td class="odd">to consider</td><td><span class="arabic">'9*(1</span> (i3tabara)</td></tr> <tr><td class="odd">to see, perceive, deem</td><td><span class="arabic">1#I</span> (ra'a)</td></tr> <tr><td class="odd">to find, deem</td><td><span class="arabic">H,/</span> (wajada)</td></tr> <tr><td class="odd">to consider, deem</td><td><span class="arabic">9/Q</span> <span dir="ltr">(3adda)</span></td></tr> <tr><td class="odd">to convert</td><td><span class="arabic">5JQ1</span> (Sayyara)</td></tr> <tr><td class="odd">to make</td><td><span class="arabic">,9D</span> (ja3ala)</td></tr> <tr><td class="odd">to to take, adopt (as)</td><td><span class="arabic">'*.0</span> (ittaxa<u>d</u>a)</td></tr> <tr><td class="odd">to leave</td><td><span class="arabic">*1C</span> (taraka)</td></tr> </table><br /> <p>If you put any of these words in a sentence, it will change both the subject (<span class="arabic">'DE(*/'!</span>) and the predicate (<span class="arabic">'D.(1</span>) to the accusative case (<span class="arabic">'DEF5H(</span>).</p> <div class="example"><table class="nest"> <tr><td><span class="arabic">'D',*E'9O 61H1JL</span> (<span class="bold">al-ijtimaa3u Daruuriyyun</span>)</td><td><span class="arabic">F9*(1L 'D',*E'9N 61H1J'</span> (na3atabiru <span class="bold">l-ijtimaa3a Daruuriyyan</span>)</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="bold">The meeting is necessary</span>.</td><td>We consider <span class="bold">the meeting [to be] necessary</span>.</td></tr> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">'D('(O EA*H-L</span> (<span class="bold">al-baabu maftuuHun</span>)</td><td><span class="arabic">*1CN 'D('(N EA*H-'L</span> (taraka <span class="bold">l-baaba maftuuHan</span>)</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="bold">The door is open</span>.</td><td>He left <span class="bold">the door open</span>.</td></tr> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">'DBJ'/)O 3GD)L</span> (<span class="bold">al-qiyaadatu sahlatun</span>)</td><td><span class="arabic">8F #-E/ 'DBJ'/)N 3GD)N</span> (Zanna aHmad <span class="bold">al-qiyaadata sahlatan</span>)</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="bold">Driving is easy</span>.</td><td>Ahmed believed <span class="bold">driving was easy</span>.</td></tr></table></div> <br /> <br /><span class="back">&larr; 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