<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-type" content="text/html;charset=UTF-8" /> <title>Conditional statements in Egyptian Arabic ('D,ED) 'D417J))</title> <link type="text/css" rel="stylesheet" href="style.css" /> <meta name="description" content="Forming possible and impossible conditional statements in Egyptian Arabic, including examples." /> <script type="text/javascript"> var _gaq = _gaq || []; _gaq.push(['_setAccount', 'UA-29877981-1']); _gaq.push(['_trackPageview']); (function() { var ga = document.createElement('script'); ga.type = 'text/javascript'; ga.async = true; ga.src = ('https:' == document.location.protocol ? 'https://ssl' : 'http://www') + '.google-analytics.com/ga.js'; var s = document.getElementsByTagName('script')[0]; s.parentNode.insertBefore(ga, s); })(); </script> </head> <body> <div id="content"> <div id="head"> <span class="title">Arabic learning resources</span> <ul id="menu"> <li><a href="index.html">home</a></li> <li><a href="vocab.html">vocabulary</a></li> <li><a href="grammar.html">grammar</a></li> <li><a href="faq.html">faq</a></li> <li><a href="about.html">about</a></li> <li><a href="links.html">links</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="body"> <h1>The conditional sentence in Egyptian Arabic</h1><br /> <ul> <li><a href="#intro">Introduction</a></li> <li><a href="#poss">Possible conditionals</a></li> <li><a href="#imposs">Impossible/counter-to-fact conditionals</a></li> <li><a href="#ex">Examples - for comparison of the two kinds of conditionals</a></li> </ul> <br /><hr /> <br /><h2><a name="intro"></a>Introduction</h2><br /> <p>There are two types of conditional statements: the possible (If you work hard, you'll do well; if I see Samia today, I'll ask her out) and the impossible/counter-to-fact (If I were rich, I'd buy a Mercedes; if I'd known that, I wouldn't have done what I did).</p> <p>There are two main words for "if" in Arabic: <span class="arabic">DH</span> (law) and <span class="arabic">'0'</span> (i<u>d</u>a in fuSHa/iza in 3ammiyya). (And there's also the more literary/classical <span class="arabic">%F</span>.) In standard Arabic, <span class="arabic">'0'</span> is reserved for possible conditions, while <span class="arabic">DH</span> is used for impossible conditions. In Egyptian Arabic, however, the two words are usually used interchangeably, with <span class="arabic">DH</span> being more common.</p> <br /><hr /> <br /><h2><a name="poss"></a>Possible conditionals</h2><br /> <p><span class="bold">The "if" clause</span> may begin with <span class="arabic">DH</span> or <span class="arabic">'0'</span>, followed by:</p> <ul><li><span class="bold">possibility 1:</span> a verb in the past tense or &mdash; with <span class="arabic">DH</span> only &mdash; a verb in the present tense <table class="manyexamples"> <tr><td><span class="arabic">'0' 4A* #5-'(J</span> (iza aoft aSHaabi)</td></tr> <tr><td>if I see my friends</td></tr> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">DH *1H- 'D3JFE' (C1)</span> (law tiruuH is-senema bukra)</td></tr> <tr><td>if you go to the movies tomorrow</td></tr></table><br /></li> <li><span class="bold">possibility 2:</span> some form of <span class="arabic">C'F</span> paired with a verb, participle, modal, or nominal or prepositional phrase <table class="manyexamples"><tr><td><span class="arabic">'0' CF* *-( *J,J</span> (iza kunte tiHebbe tiigi)</td><td><span class="arabic">'0' CF* A'6J</span> (iza kunte faaDi)</td></tr> <tr><td>if you'd like to come</td><td>if you're free</td></tr> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">'0' CF* 9'J2 *J,J</span> (iza kunte 3aayiz tiigi)</td><td><span class="arabic">'0' C'F 9F/J 'DHB*</span> (iza kaan 3andi l-wa't)</td></tr> <tr><td>if you want to come</td><td>if I have time</td></tr> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">DH C'F EECF</span> (law kaan mumkin)</td></tr> <tr><td>if it's possible</td></tr></table> </li></ul><br /> <p><span class="bold">The "then" clause</span> may begin with a future-tense verb or command.</p> <table class="manyexamples"><tr><td><span class="arabic">G*CDE E9'GE</span> (hatkallem ma3aahom)</td></tr> <tr><td>I'll talk to them</td></tr> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">*9'DI E9'J'</span> (ta3aala ma3aaya)</td></tr> <tr><td>come with me</td></tr></table> <br /><p>Examples:</p> <table class="zebra"> <tr><td><span class="arabic">'0' 0'C1* CHJ3  G*,J( /1,'* 9'DJ)</span> (iza zakirte kwayyis, hatgiib daragaat 3alya)</td></tr> <tr><td>If you study well, you'll get high grades.</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td><span class="arabic">DH 4A* /JF' 'DFG'1 /G  G92EG' 9DI 'D94'</span> (law aofte Dina n-nahaarda, ha3zemha 3ala l-3aaa)</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td>If I see Dina today, I'll invite her to dinner</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">DH *1H-J 'D3JFE' (C1)  G",J E9'CJ</span> (law tiruuHi s-senema bokra, haagi ma3aaki)</td></tr> <tr><td>If you go to the movies tomorrow, I'll come with you.</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td><span class="arabic">DH C'F /G #3DH(C  E'*29D4 '0' E'CDE*C4 *'FJ</span> (law kan da osluubak, matiz3alae iza makallemtakae taani)</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td>If that's your way of doing things, (then) don't get upset if I don't talk to you again.</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">DH CF* 9'J2 *J,J E9'J'  JD' F1H-</span> (law kunte 3aayiz tiigi ma3aaya, yalla nruuH)</td></tr> <tr><td>If you want to come with me, then let's go.</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td><span class="arabic">'0' CF* *-( *B9/  '*A6D</span> (iza kunte tiHebbe ti'3od, itfaDDal)</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td>If you'd like to sit down, then go ahead.</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">DH 'D,H CHJ3  JD' FF2D HF*E4I</span> (law ig-gaww kwayyis, yalla ninzil wa nitmaaaa)</td></tr> <tr><td>If the weather is nice, let's go down and take a walk.</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td><span class="arabic">DH '*A1,* 9DI 'DAJDE /G  G*-(G</span> (law itfarragt 3ala l-film da, hatHebbu)</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td>If you watch this movie, you'll like it.</td></tr> </table> <br /><br /><hr /> <br /><h2><a name="imposs"></a>Impossible/counter-to-fact conditionals</h2><br /> <p>Again, <span class="bold">the "if" clause</span> may begin with <span class="arabic">DH</span> or <span class="arabic">'0'</span>. It is usually followed by the appropriate form of <span class="arabic">C'F</span>. What follows that may be a past- or present-tense verb, modal, or active participle.</p> <table class="manyexamples"> <tr><td><span class="arabic">DH CF* 4A*G</span> (law kunte aoftu)</td><td><span class="arabic">DH CF* (*-(FJ</span> (law kunte bitHebbeni)</td></tr> <tr><td>if you'd seen him</td><td>if you loved me</td></tr> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">DH CF* A'C1</span> (law kunte faakir)</td><td><span class="arabic">DH C'F EECF</span> (law kaan mumkin)</td></tr> <tr><td>if I('d) remembered</td><td>if it had been possible</td></tr> </table> <br /><p>Note that, as with the last example, this clause may be identical to its "possible" equivalent. What really distinguishes possible from impossible conditionals is the following:</p> <p><span class="bold">The "then" clause</span> <span class="italic">must</span> begin with an appropriate form of <span class="arabic">C'F</span>! It is then followed by a past-tense verb, if you are talking about something you would/wouldn't have done, or a simple present/future-tense verb if you're talking about something you would do (right now).</p> <table class="manyexamples"> <tr><td><span class="arabic">C'F ,G</span> (kaan geh)</td></tr> <tr><td>he would've come</td></tr> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">CF* #BHD DC\GBHD DC</span> (kunt a'ollak/ha'ollak)</td></tr> <tr><td>I would tell you</td></tr> </table> <br /><p>Examples:</p> <table class="zebra"> <tr><td><span class="arabic">'0' CF* 0'C1* CHJ3  CF* ,(* /1,'* #-3F</span> (iza kunte zakirte kwayyis, kunte gibte daragaat aHsan)</td></tr> <tr><td>If you had studied well, you would've gotten better grades.</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td><span class="arabic">DH E9'J' ADH3  CF* '4*1J* 91(J) E13J/J3</span> (law ma3aaya filuus, kunt ishtareit 3arabiyya Mercedes)</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td>If I had money, I'd buy a Mercedes.</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">DH C'F EECF #1H- E9'C  CF* 1-*  DCF #F' CF* E4:HD)</span> (law kan mumkin aruuH ma3aak, kunte roHt, laakin ana kunt maa!uula)</td></tr> <tr><td>If I could've gone with you, I would've, but I was busy.</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td><span class="arabic">DH CF* 9'1A) 'F /G GJ-5D (9/ E' #.1,  E'CF*4 .1,*</span> (law kunte 3arfa inne da hayeHSal ba3de maxrug, makuntea xaragt)</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td>If I'd known that would happen after I left, I wouldn't have left.</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">'0' E'CF*4 'F* BD* DJ  C'F -/ *'FJ B'D DJ</span> (law makuntea enta 'oltili, kaan Hadde taani 'alli)</td></tr> <tr><td>If you hadn't told me, someone else would've.</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td><span class="arabic">DH CF* (*-(FJ  E'CF*4 BD* 'DDJ 'F* BD*G</span> (law kunt bitHebbeni, makuntea 'olt illenta 'oltu)</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td>If you loved me, you wouldn't have have said what you said.</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">DH 'D,H C'F CHJ3  CF' 1-F' 'D(D',</span> (law ig-gaww kan kwayyis, kunna roHna l-blaa~)</td></tr> <tr><td>If the weather had been good, we would've gone to the beach.</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td><span class="arabic">DH CF* '*A1,* 9DI 'DAJDE /G  CF* G*-(G</span> (law kunt itfarragt 3ala l-film da, kunte Habbeitu)</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td>If you'd watched this movie, you would've liked it.</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">DH E'CF*4 F3J* *DJAHFJ 'DE-EHD  CF* 1/J* 9DI 'DEC'DE) (*'9*C</span> (law makuntea niseit telefooni l-maHmuul, kunt raddeit 3ala l-mukalma beta3tek)</td></tr> <tr><td>If I hadn't forgotten my cell phone, I would've replied to your call.</td></tr> </table> <br /><br /><hr /> <br /><h2><a name="ex"></a>Examples for comparison of possible and impossible conditionals</h2><br /> <table class="zebra"> <tr><td><span class="arabic">DH DBJ*\#D'BJ 'D,H'(  GBHD DC</span> (law la'eit/alaa'i l-gawaab, ha'ollak)</td></tr> <tr><td>If I find the answer, I'll tell you.</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td><span class="arabic">DH 9+1* 9DI 'D,H'(  BHD DJ</span> (law 3etert 3ala l-gawaab, 'olli)</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td>If you come across the answer, tell me.</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">DH CF* 9'1A) 'D,H'(  CF* BD* DC</span> (law kunte 3arfa l-gawaab, kunt 'oltilak)</td></tr> <tr><td>If I'd known the answer, I would've told you.</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td><span class="arabic">DH CF* 9'1A) 'D,H'(  CF* GBHD DC</span> (law kunte 3arfa l-gawaab, kunt ha'ollak)</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td>If I knew the answer, I would tell you.</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">-*I HDH CF* 9'1A) 'D,H'(  E'CF*4 BD* DC</span> (Hatta wa-law kunte 3arfa l-gawaab, makuntea 'oltilak)</td></tr> <tr><td>Even if I'd known the answer, I wouldn't have told you.</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td><span class="arabic">-*I HDH CF* 9'1A) 'D,H'(  E'CF*4 GBHD DC</span> (Hatta wa-law kunte 3arfa l-gawaab, makuntea ha'ollak)</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td>Even if I knew the answer, I wouldn't tell you.</td></tr> </table> <br /> <br /><span class="back">&larr; <a href="grammar.html">Main grammar page</a></span> <span class="forward"><a href="g_numbers.html">Numbers</a> &rarr;</span> <br /> </div> <div id="footer"> <p><a href="mailto:webmaster%20(at)%20desert-sky%20(dot)%20net">Contact</a></p> </div> </div> </body> </html>