<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"> <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-type" content="text/html;charset=UTF-8" /> <title>The imperative in Egyptian Arabic ('D#E1 AJ 'D9'EJ) 'DE51J))</title> <link type="text/css" rel="stylesheet" href="style.css" /> <meta name="description" content="Forming and negating commands in Egyptian Arabic, including examples." /> <script type="text/javascript"> var _gaq = _gaq || []; _gaq.push(['_setAccount', 'UA-29877981-1']); _gaq.push(['_trackPageview']); (function() { var ga = document.createElement('script'); ga.type = 'text/javascript'; ga.async = true; ga.src = ('https:' == document.location.protocol ? 'https://ssl' : 'http://www') + '.google-analytics.com/ga.js'; var s = document.getElementsByTagName('script')[0]; s.parentNode.insertBefore(ga, s); })(); </script> </head> <body> <div id="content"> <div id="head"> <span class="title">Arabic learning resources</span> <ul id="menu"> <li><a href="index.html">home</a></li> <li><a href="vocab.html">vocabulary</a></li> <li><a href="grammar.html">grammar</a></li> <li><a href="faq.html">faq</a></li> <li><a href="about.html">about</a></li> <li><a href="links.html">links</a></li> </ul> </div> <div class="body"> <h1>The imperative in Egyptian Arabic</h1><br /> <ul> <li><a href="#direct">Forming direct commands</a></li> <li><a href="#indir">Expressing indirect/polite wishes</a></li> <li><a href="#directn">Forming direct negative commands</a></li> <li><a href="#indirn">Expressing indirect negative commands</a></li> </ul> <br /><hr /> <br /><h2><a name="direct"></a>Forming direct commands</h2><br /> <p>To form commands in Egyptian Arabic, <span class="bold">step 1</span> is to start out with the imperfect form of the verb (<span class="arabic">'DE6'19</span>). A few examples:</p> <table class="manyexamples"> <tr><td><span class="arabic">J-7</span> (yiHoTT) to put</td><td><span class="arabic">JE4J</span> (yimai) to go/walk</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">J1H-</span> (yiruuH) to go</td><td><span class="arabic">JA*-</span> (yiftaH) to open</td></tr> </table> <br /><p><span class="bold">Step 2</span> is to get rid of the <span class="arabic">J</span> at the beginning:</p> <table class="manyexamples"> <tr><td><span class="arabic">-7</span> (HoTT)</td><td><span class="arabic">E4J</span> (mai)</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">1H-</span> (ruuH)</td><td><span class="arabic">A*-</span> (ftaH)</td></tr> </table> <br /><p><span class="bold">Step 3</span> is to determine whether you can leave the verb like that or need to add an <span class="arabic">'</span> at the beginning.</p> <ul><li>If the verb is like the verbs in the left-hand column (i.e. "HoTT," "ruuH"), and has a consonant followed by a vowel, you leave it alone. This is the correct command form.</li> <li>But if the verb is like those on the right, and has a consonant cluster at the beginning, you can't leave it that way and say "mai" or "ftaH." In Egyptian Arabic, consonant clusters like that aren't allowed at the start of words. So you have to add an <span class="arabic">'</span> at the beginning:</li></ul> <table class="manyexamples"> <tr><td><span class="arabic">'E4J</span> (imai)</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">'A*-</span> (iftaH)</td></tr> </table> <br /><p>This is the formula for a command to a man. So, <span class="bold">step 4</span>: in order to formulate commands to a woman or to a group, you just add an -i or -u suffix, respectively.</p> <table class="manyexamples"> <tr><td><span class="arabic">-7J - -7H'</span> (HoTTi - HoTTu)</td><td><span class="arabic">'E4J - 'E4H'</span> (imai - imau)</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">1H-J - 1H-H'</span> (ruuHi - ruuHu)</td><td><span class="arabic">'A*-J - 'A*-H'</span> (iftaHi - iftaHu)</td></tr> </table> <br /><p><span class="emphasis">Note:</span> With defective verbs, where the base verb ends in a vowel (as with <span class="arabic">JE4J</span>), you get rid of the ending vowel before adding -i or -u. Some more examples:</p> <table class="zebra"> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <tr class="odd bottombordersolid"><td><span class="bold">Step 1 - original verb</span></td><td><span class="bold">Step 2 - take out the initial <span class="arabic">J</span></span></td><td><span class="bold">Step 3 - masc. command form</span></td><td><span class="bold">Step 4 - fem./pl. command form</span></td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">J3*FQI</span> (yistinna) to wait</td><td><span class="arabic">3*FQI</span> (stinna)</td><td><span class="arabic">'3*FQI</span> (istinna)</td><td><span class="arabic">'3*FQJ - '3*FQH'</span> (istinni - istinnu)</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">J5-I</span> (yiSHa) to wake up</td><td><span class="arabic">5-I</span> (SHa)</td><td><span class="arabic">'5-I</span> (iSHa)</td><td><span class="arabic">'5-J - '5-H'</span> (iSHi - iSHu)</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">JF3I</span> (yinsa) to forget</td><td><span class="arabic">F3I</span> (nsa)</td><td><span class="arabic">'F3I</span> (insa)</td><td><span class="arabic">'F3J - 'F3H'</span> (insi - insu)</td></tr> </table> <br /><p>A table of some common commands:</p> <table class="zebra"> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <tr class="odd bottombordersolid"><td><span class="bold">Step 1 - original verb</span></td><td><span class="bold">Step 2 - take out the initial <span class="arabic">J</span></span></td><td><span class="bold">Step 3 - command form</span></td><td><span class="bold">Step 4 - fem./pl. command form</span></td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">J9ED</span> (yi3mel) to do/make</td><td><span class="arabic">9ED</span> <span dir="ltr">(3mel)</span></td><td><span class="arabic">'9ED</span> (i3mel)</td><td><span class="arabic">'9EDJ - '9EDH'</span> (i3meli - i3melu)</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td><span class="arabic">J1,9</span> (yirga3) to return</td><td><span class="arabic">1,9</span> (rga3)</td><td><span class="arabic">'1,9</span> (irga3)</td><td><span class="arabic">'1,9J - '1,9H'</span> (irga3i - irga3u)</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">J,1J</span> (yigri) to run</td><td><span class="arabic">,1J</span> (gri)</td><td><span class="arabic">',1J</span> (igri)</td><td><span class="arabic">',1J - ',1H'</span> (igri - igru)</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td><span class="arabic">JF2D</span> (yinzil) to go down</td><td><span class="arabic">F2D</span> (nzil)</td><td><span class="arabic">'F2D</span> (inzil)</td><td><span class="arabic">'F2DJ - 'F2DH'</span> (inzili - inzilu)</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">J*CDQE</span> (yitkallim) to talk</td><td><span class="arabic">*CDQE</span> (tkallim)</td><td><span class="arabic">'*CDQE</span> (itkallim)</td><td><span class="arabic">'*CDQEJ - '*CDQEH'</span> (itkallimi - itkallimu)</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td><span class="arabic">JA*C1</span> (yiftikir) to remember</td><td><span class="arabic">A*C1</span> (ftikir)</td><td><span class="arabic">'A*C1</span> (iftikir)</td><td><span class="arabic">'A*C1J - 'A*C1H'</span> (iftikri - iftikru)</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">J4*:D</span> (yiata!il) to work</td><td><span class="arabic">4*:D</span> (ata!il)</td><td><span class="arabic">'4*:D</span> (iata!il)</td><td><span class="arabic">'4*:DJ - '4*:DH'</span> (iata!li - iata!lu)</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td><span class="arabic">JH9/</span> (yiw3id) to promise</td><td><span class="arabic">H9/</span> (w3id)</td><td><span class="arabic">'H9/</span> (iw3id)</td><td><span class="arabic">'H9/J - 'H9/H'</span> (iw3idi - iw3idu)</td></tr> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td><td>&nbsp;</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td><span class="arabic">J:JQ1</span> (yi!ayyar) to change s.t.</td><td><span class="arabic">:JQ1</span> (!ayyar)</td><td><span class="arabic">:JQ1</span> (!ayyar)</td><td><span class="arabic">:JQ1J - :JQ1H'</span> (!ayyari - !ayyaru)</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">JCDQE</span> (yikallim) to talk (to s.o.)</td><td><span class="arabic">CDQE</span> (kallim)</td><td><span class="arabic">CDQE</span> (kallim)</td><td><span class="arabic">CDQEJ - CDQEH'</span> (kallimi - kallimu)</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td><span class="arabic">J3'9/</span> (yisaa3id) to help</td><td><span class="arabic">3'9/</span> (saa3id)</td><td><span class="arabic">3'9/</span> (saa3id)</td><td><span class="arabic">3'9/J - 3'9/H'</span> (saa3idi - saa3idu)</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">J0'C1</span> (yizaakir) to study</td><td><span class="arabic">0'C1</span> (zaakir)</td><td><span class="arabic">0'C1</span> (zaakir)</td><td><span class="arabic">0'C1J - 0'C1H'</span> (zakri - zakru)</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td><span class="arabic">JBHE</span> (yi'uum) to get up/rise</td><td><span class="arabic">BHE</span> ('uum)</td><td><span class="arabic">BHE</span> ('uum)</td><td><span class="arabic">BHEJ - BHEH'</span> ('uumi - 'uumu)</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">J4JD</span> (yiaiil) to carry</td><td><span class="arabic">4JD</span> (aiil)</td><td><span class="arabic">4JD</span> (aiil)</td><td><span class="arabic">4JDJ - 4JDH'</span> (aiili - aiilu)</td></tr> </table> <br /><p>So to sum up with a simplified rule: if the verb is any of the following, you <span class="italic">don't</span> need to add an <span class="arabic">'</span> to the beginning of the command.</p> <ul><li>form 2 verbs <table class="manyexamples"><tr><td><span class="arabic">J:JQ1</span> (yi!ayyar)</td><td>to change (s.t.) </td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">J,1Q(</span> (yigarrib)</td><td>to try/test</td></tr></table></li> <li>form 3 verbs <table class="manyexamples"><tr><td><span class="arabic">J3'9/</span> (yisaa3id)</td><td>to help</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">J-'HD</span> (yiHaawil)</td><td>to try/attempt</td></tr></table></li> <li>geminate/doubled verbs <table class="manyexamples"><tr><td><span class="arabic">J1/Q</span> (yirodd)</td><td>to reply</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">J(5Q</span> (yiboSS)</td><td>to look</td></tr></table></li> <li>hollow verbs <table class="manyexamples"><tr><td><span class="arabic">J1H-</span> (yiruuH)</td><td>to go</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">J3J(</span> (yisiib)</td><td>to leave</td></tr></table></li></ul> <p><span class="emphasis">Note:</span> With hamzated verbs that have a long alif right after the initial <span class="arabic">J</span> (like <span class="arabic">J'./</span> yaaxod and <span class="arabic">J'CD</span> yaakol), you remove both the inital <span class="arabic">J</span> <span class="italic">and</span> the long alif in step 2. So the commands for these verbs are <span class="arabic">./ - ./J - ./H'</span> (xod - xodi - xodu) and <span class="arabic">CD - CDJ - CDH'</span> (kol - koli - kolu).</p> <p>And if the verb isn't in one of those categories, you <span class="italic">do</span> need to add an <span class="arabic">'</span> to the beginning of the command.</p> <p><span class="emphasis">Note:</span> There are a couple of irregular commands:</p> <table class="zebra"> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <tr class="odd bottombordersolid"><td><span class="bold">Verb</span></td><td><span class="bold">Command forms</span></td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">,'( - J,J(</span> (gaab - yigiib) to bring</td><td><span class="arabic">G'* - G'*J - G'*H'</span> (haat - haati - haatu)</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">,G - J,J</span> (geh - yiigi) to come</td><td><span class="arabic">*9'DI - *9'DJ - *9'DH'</span> (ta3aala - ta3aali - ta3aalu)</td></tr> </table> <br /><hr /> <br /><h2><a name="indir"></a>Expressing indirect/polite wishes</h2><br /> <p>To express a more polite/indirect desire for someone to do something, there are different ways to go about it:</p> <p>You can use modals with the appropriate second-person imperfect verb conjugation:</p> <table class="manyexamples"> <tr><td><span class="arabic" dir="rtl">D'2E...</span> (laazim...)</td><td><span class="arabic" dir="rtl">'DEA1H6...</span> (il-mafruuD)</td></tr> <tr><td>you must/have to...</td><td>you should...</td></tr> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic" dir="rtl">#-3F...</span> (aHsan...)</td><td><span class="arabic" dir="rtl">EECF...</span> (mumkin...)</td></tr> <tr><td>it'd be better to...</td><td>can you...?</td></tr> </table> <br /><p>Words like <span class="arabic">D'2E</span> are more imperative. <span class="arabic">EECF</span> is better to use with people you don't know; in general, it's the best all-purpose polite way to phrase a request.</p> <p>And of course it's always good to say "please"!</p> <div class="example"> <span class="arabic">EF A6DC - EF A6DC - EF A6DCH'</span> (min faDlak - min faDlik - min faDluku) <br /><span class="arabic">DH 3E-* - DH 3E-*J - DH 3E-*H'</span> (law samaHt - law samaHti - law samaHtu)</div> <br /><p>Examples:</p> <table class="manyexamples"> <tr><td class="equalwidth"><span class="arabic">D'2E *AC1 AJ 'DEH6H9 EF ,EJ9 FH'-JG B(D E' *'./ B1'1</span> (laazim tifakkar fil-mawDuu3 min gamii3 nawaHiih 'able ma taaxod qaraar)</td><td class="equalwidth"><span class="arabic">C'F 'DEA1H6 *H5D EF 2E'F</span> (kaan il-mafruuD tiwSil min zamaan)</td></tr> <tr><td>You should think about the issue from every angle before you make a decision.</td><td>You should have arrived a long time ago.</td></tr> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">#-3F *.D5 'DCDJ) B(D E' **,H2</span> (aHsan tixallaS il-kolliyya 'able ma titgawwiz)</td><td><span class="arabic">EECF *H1JFJ 'D3C)</span> (mumkin tiwarriini s-sikka?)</td></tr> <tr><td>It'd be better to finish college before you get married.</td><td>Can you show me the way?</td></tr></table> <br /><br /><hr /><br /> <h2><a name="directn"></a>Forming direct negative commands</h2><br /> <p>To form basic direct <span class="italic">negative</span> commands, forget about how you formed commands above. <span class="bold">Step 1</span> is starting out with the appropriate second-person imperfect conjugation of the verb.</p> <table class="manyexamples"> <tr><td><span class="arabic">*-7Q</span> (tiHoTT) you (masc.) put</td><td><span class="arabic">*E4J</span> (timai) you (masc./fem.) go/walk</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">*1H-J</span> (tiruuHi) you (fem.) go</td><td><span class="arabic">*A*-H'</span> (tiftaHu) you (pl.) open</td></tr> </table> <br /><p><span class="bold">Step 2</span>: put <span class="arabic">E'</span> at the beginning and <span class="arabic">@4</span> at the end.</p> <table class="manyexamples"> <tr><td><span class="arabic">E'*-7Q4</span> (matHoTTea)</td><td><span class="arabic">E'*E4J4</span> (matimaiia)</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">E'*1H-J4</span> (matruuHiia)</td><td><span class="arabic">E'*A*-H4</span> (matiftaHuua)</td></tr> </table> <br /><p>That's it! A table of negative commands, using the same words as the big table above.</p> <table class="zebra"><colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <tr class="odd bottombordersolid"><td><span class="bold">Step 1 - original verb - 2nd person</span></td><td><span class="bold">Step 2 - add <span class="arabic">E'</span> and <span class="arabic">@4</span></span></td><td><span class="bold">Fem./pl. forms</span></td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">*9ED</span> (ti3mel) you do/make</td><td><span class="arabic">E'*9ED4</span> (mati3mela)</td><td><span class="arabic">E'*9EDJ4 - E'*9EDH4</span> (mati3meliia - mati3meluua)</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td><span class="arabic">*1,9</span> (tirga3) you return</td><td><span class="arabic">E'*1,94</span> (matirga3a)</td><td><span class="arabic">E'*1,9J4 - E'*1,9H4</span> (matirga3iia - matirga3uua)</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">*,1J</span> (tigri) you run</td><td><span class="arabic">E'*,1J4</span> (matigriia)</td><td><span class="arabic">E'*,1J4 - E'*,1H4</span> (matigriia - matigrua)</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td><span class="arabic">*F2D</span> (tinzil) you go down</td><td><span class="arabic">E'*F2D4</span> (matinzila)</td><td><span class="arabic">E'*F2DJ4 - E'*F2DH4</span> (matinziliia - matinziluua)</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">**CDQE</span> (titkallim) you talk</td><td><span class="arabic">E'**CDQE4</span> (matitkallima)</td><td><span class="arabic">E'**CDQEJ4 - E'**CDQEH4</span> (matitkallimiia - matitkallimuua)</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td><span class="arabic">*A*C1</span> (tiftikir) you remember</td><td><span class="arabic">E'*A*C14</span> (matiftikira)</td><td><span class="arabic">E'*A*C1J4 - E'*A*C1H4</span> (matiftikriia - matiftikruua)</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">*4*:D</span> (tiata!il) you work</td><td><span class="arabic">E'*4*:D4</span> (matiata!ila)</td><td><span class="arabic">E'*4*:DJ4 - E'*4*:DH4</span> (matiata!liia - matiata!luua)</td></tr> <tr><td>&nbsp;</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td><span class="arabic">*:JQ1</span> (ti!ayyar) you change s.t.</td><td><span class="arabic">E'*:JQ1</span> (mat!ayyara)</td><td><span class="arabic">E'*:JQ1J4 - E'*:JQ1H4</span> (mat!ayyariia - mat!ayyaruua)</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">*CDQE</span> (tikallim) you talk (to s.o.)</td><td><span class="arabic">E'CDQE4</span> (matkallima)</td><td><span class="arabic">E'*CDQEJ4 - E'*CDQEH4</span> (matkallimiia - matkallimuua)</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td><span class="arabic">*3'9/</span> (tisaa3id) you help</td><td><span class="arabic">E'*3'9/4</span> (matsa3ida)</td><td><span class="arabic">E'*3'9/J4 - E'*3'9/H4</span> (matsa3idiia - matsa3iduua)</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">*0'C1</span> (tizaakir) you study</td><td><span class="arabic">E'*0'C14</span> (matzakira)</td><td><span class="arabic">E'*0'C1J4 - E'*0'C1H4</span> (matzakriia - matzakruua)</td></tr> <tr class="odd"><td><span class="arabic">*BHE</span> (ti'uum) you get up/rise</td><td><span class="arabic">E'*BHE4</span> (mat'uma)</td><td><span class="arabic">E'*BHEJ4 - E'*BHEH4</span> (mat'umiia - mat'umuua)</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">*4JD</span> (tiaiil) you carry</td><td><span class="arabic">E'*4JD4</span> (mataila)</td><td><span class="arabic">E'*4JDJ4 - E'*4JDH4</span> (matailiia - matailuua)</td></tr> </table> <br /><p>To negate those two irregular imperatives, you just do the two steps described above.</p> <table class="zebra"> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <colgroup class="column"></colgroup> <tr class="odd bottombordersolid"><td><span class="bold">Verb - 2nd person</span></td><td><span class="bold">Negated command forms</span></td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">*,J( - J,J(J - *,J(H'</span> (tigiib - tigiibi - tigiibu) you bring</td><td><span class="arabic">E'*,J4 - E'*,J(J4 - E'*,J(H4</span> (matgiba - matgibiia - matgibuua)</td></tr> <tr><td><span class="arabic">*J,J - *J,J - *J,H'</span> (tiigi - tiigi - tiigu) you come</td><td><span class="arabic">E'*J,J4 - E'*J,J4 - E'*J,H4</span> (matgiia - matgiia - matguua)</td></tr> </table> <br /><hr /> <br /><h2><a name="indirn"></a>Expressing indirect negative commands</h2><br /> <p>And aside from the direct negated imperative, there are a few other ways to tell someone not to do something:</p> <p>1. Use <span class="arabic">(D'4</span> (balaaa) with the appropriate second-person imperfect verb conjugation. This is not as strong as a direct negative order; it can have the connotation of a polite request or even mere advice/preference on behalf of the person talking.</p> <div class="example">If you saw a friend standing in the street to catch a bus and there was a place to sit nearby, you might say,<br /> <span class="arabic">(D'4 *3*FI C/) AJ 'D4'19  #-3F DC *B9/ ,H)</span> (balaaa tistinna kida fea-aaari3, aHsan-lak te'3od gowwa)<br /> "No need to wait like that in the street, it'd be better for you to sit inside."</div> <br /><p><span class="arabic">(D'4</span> can also be used with a <span class="arabic">E5/1</span>.</p> <div class="example">If you were in a library and there were a bunch of children making noise nearby, you could tell them,<br /> <span class="arabic">(D'4 /H4) J' HD'/</span> (balaaa dawaa ya welaad)<br /> "No noise, kids."</div> <br /><p>2. Use <span class="arabic">%H9I</span> (ew3a) with the appropriate second-person imperfect verb conjugation. Note that if you're addressing a woman, <span class="arabic">%H9I</span> changes to <span class="arabic">%H9J</span> (ewa3i), and if you're addressing a group, it becomes <span class="arabic">#H9H'</span> (ewa3u). This word can have different connotations depending on how it's used; it can be a "watch out/take care!" kind of statement (like <span class="arabic">.DDJ ('DC</span> often is), a warning, or a very strong "Don't dare do that!" kind of statement.</p> <div class="example">If someone tall was going into a room with a low door, you might tell them,<br /> <span class="arabic">%H9I 1'3C</span> (ew3a raasak)<br /> Watch out for your head.<br /><br /> If someone was waiting and waiting for someone who wasn't going to come, you could say,<br /> <span class="arabic">%H9I *A6D E3*FJ'G 9DI 7HD</span> (ew3a tifDal mistinnyaah 3ala Tuul)<br /> Don't keep waiting for him forever.<br /><br /> To warn someone not to forget their cellphone:<br /> <span class="arabic">%H9J *F3J EH('JDC</span> (ewa3i tinsi mobaylek)<br /><br /> If you'd had an argument with someone and were really mad at them:<br /> <span dir="rtl" class="arabic">%H9I *CDQEFJ *'FJ  #F' E4 9'J2) #4HA H4C!</span> (ew3a tkallemni taani, ana mia 3ayza aauuf wiaaak taani!)<br /> Don't dare talk to me again, I don't want to see your face again!</div> <br /><p>3. And finally, there's <span class="arabic">%J'C</span> (iiyyaak) with the appropriate second-person imperfect verb conjugation. Note that if you're addressing a woman, <span class="arabic">%J'C</span> changes to <span class="arabic">%J'CJ</span> (iiyaaki), and if you're addressing a group, it becomes <span class="arabic">%J'CH'</span> (iiyyaaku). <span class="arabic">%J'C</span> is from fuSHa but used colloquially to express a very strong prohibition (like "Don't you <span class="italic">dare</span> do that!!"). However, if it's used with someone you know well in a context that isn't angry, it doesn't necessarily express such strong feeling.</p> <div class="example"><span class="arabic">%J'CJ *'CDJ EF #CDJ AJ 'D*D',)</span> (iiyaaki takli min akli fet-tallaaga)<br /> Don't eat any of my food that's in the fridge!</div> <br /> <br /><span class="back">&larr; <a href="grammar.html">Main grammar page</a></span> <span class="forward"><a href="g_act.html">The active participle</a> &rarr;</span> <br /> </div> <div id="footer"> <p><a href="mailto:webmaster%20(at)%20desert-sky%20(dot)%20net">Contact</a></p> </div> </div> </body> </html>